Oil refining is the process of turning Crude oil into Gasoline and
many other products which involves the work of various people
including HSE Manager, Operations Technologist, Refinery Designs
Engineer, Chemical Engineers, Petroleum engineer and other profiles
India is a huge source for these profiles owing to the numerous
institutes of good repute producing technicians of the best caliber.
Using the above mentioned manpower, Crude oil in the refineries is
processed to obtain the following products of daily use :
- Petroleum gas - Petroleum gas is used for heating, cooking
and making plastics.
- Naphtha -It is the intermediate that will be further
processed to make gasoline.
- Gasoline - Used as fuel in most motor vehicles.
- Kerosene - Fuel for jet engines and tractors; starting
material for making other products Gas oil or
- Diesel distillate - Used for diesel fuel and heating oil;
starting material for making other products
- Lubricating oil - Used for motor oil, grease, other
- Heavy gas or Fuel oil - Used for industrial fuel; starting
material for making other products
- Residuals (coke, asphalt, tar, waxes)- starting material for
making other products.
Petroleum Engineers and factory technicians are involved in
separating crude oil into various components (called fractions),
using the differences in boiling temperature. This process is called
Chemical Engineers use newer techniques of Chemical processing on
some of the fractions to make others, in a process called
conversion. Chemical processing, for example, can break longer
chains into shorter ones. This allows a refinery to turn diesel fuel
into gasoline depending on the demand for gasoline.
Refineries must treat the fractions to remove impurities.
Refineries combine the various fractions (processed, unprocessed)
into mixtures to make desired products. For example, different
mixtures of chains can create gasolines with different octane
The products are stored and managed on-site by the Facilities
Engineer Lead , Reservoir Engineer and other workmen until they can
be delivered to various markets such as gas stations, airports and
chemical plants. In addition to making the oil-based products,
refineries must also treat the wastes involved in the processes to
minimize air and water pollution taken care of by the Pollution
control engineer, waste management professionals and health and
Indian colleges and institutions take these waste and environmental
issues into consideration when structuring the technical courses and
hence there are numerous Environmental Studies students and
professionals in the country now who are looking for broader
horizons to utilize their knowledge.
A birds eye view of upstream activities :
The process of producing final petroleum products from crude oil is
carried out in refineries.
Petrochemicals are a group of chemicals derived from the processing
of petroleum gas. They are manufactured from the gaseous
hydrocarbons produced during the cracking processes of manufacturing
The control of pollution and safeguard of lives and property from
damage and losses comes under the purview of Environment and safety.